Delayed toxic effects of chemical warfare agents

by Karlheinz Lohs

Publisher: Almqvist & Wiksell international in Stockholm

Written in English
Published: Pages: 60 Downloads: 575
Share This

Subjects:

  • Chemical warfare -- Health aspects.,
  • Toxicology.

Edition Notes

Statement[Karlheinz Lohs].
SeriesA SIPRI monograph
Classifications
LC ClassificationsRA648 .L63
The Physical Object
Paginationviii, 60 p. :
Number of Pages60
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL3907468M
ISBN 109185114294
LC Control Number81470303

@article{osti_, title = {Toxicity of the organophosphate chemical warfare agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for public protection}, author = {Munro, N.B. and Ambrose, K.R. and Watson, A.P.}, abstractNote = {The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Late Health Effects of Chemical Agent Exposure Most health effects from a chemical attack would occur quickly sure to toxic chemicals, such as eye damage and chemical burns, information on the possibility of developing other types of he made available once a specific exposure is known. Of the mili tard gas is a known carcinogen. The modern notion of chemical warfare emerged from the midth century, with the development of modern chemistry and associated industries. The first recorded modern proposal for the use of chemical warfare was made by Lyon Playfair, Secretary of the Science .   More than 10 years of U.S. chemical warfare in Vietnam exposed an estimated to million Vietnamese people to Agent Orange. More than .

  The Five Most Deadly Chemical Weapons of War "Chemical weapons require a relatively low investment, can cause severe psychological and physical effects and are agents of disruption.". CWAs are toxic chemicals used as a method of warfare, such as mustard agents or sarin. A list of CWAs may be found on Schedule 1 of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Research on the long-term health effects of exposure to CWAs is limited, but VA is collaborating with the Department of Defense (DoD) to better understand the potential health effects. A chemical agent is a substance which is intended for use in military operations to kill, seriously injure or incapacitate people because of its physiological effects. Excluded from this definition are riot control agents, herbicides, smoke, and flame. Nerve Agents Blister Agents Choking Ag. 5 Most Deadly Chemical Weapons on Planet Earth (VX, Sarin, Mustard Gas and More) is a volatile but toxic nerve agent. A single drop the size of the head of a pin is enough to kill an adult.

Delayed toxic effects of chemical warfare agents by Karlheinz Lohs Download PDF EPUB FB2

The effects of chemical warfare agents are well known—the painful blisters caused by mustard gas, the lung damage caused by phosgene, the convulsions and paralysis caused by organophosphorus compounds, and so on. However, in addition to these acute effects, most chemical warfare agents are liable to cause delayed effects, such as cancers and injuries to the liver, bone marrow and nervous system.

Delayed toxic effects of chemical warfare agents. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell international, (OCoLC) Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Karlheinz Lohs; Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, Third Edition, covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used in conflicts, warfare and terrorism.

Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this essential reference offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors and biomarkers.

Although a few agents used in chemical warfare have some direct toxic effects on the kidney and urinary system, most agents that induce changes within the urinary system do so indirectly by altering renal perfusion, inducing metabolic derangements that affect renal function, or altering muscular activity or mentation that influences lower urinary tract function.

Chemical agents associated with neuromuscular transmission syndromes include the fasciculins, crotoxin, taipoxin, tubocurarine, organophosphorus compounds, and other antidotal therapy of the toxic effects of cholinesterase inhibitors such as onchidal and fasciculins used as potential chemical warfare agents is directed to blocking the effects.

The first edition of this book, Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels, was published just prior to the terrorist attacks of Septem The second edition titled, Chemical Warfare Agents: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, included new epidemiological and clinical studies of exposed or potentially exposed populations; new treatment concepts and products.

Highly toxic organophosphorus based nerve agents were developed by different countries for use as chemical warfare agents and have been repeatedly used during military conflicts, against civilian populations and by terrorists.

The last massive attack with the nerve agent sarin occurred in Cited by: 1. This handbook considers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. As modern warfare evolves, an increasing number of chemical and biological warfare agents are introduced, making research into the effects and treatment of these agents essential for governmental bodies worldwide.

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this essential reference offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife.

Thus VX, a sulfur-containing OP, is more potent than sarin, is more stable, less volatile and less water-soluble, acting through direct skin contact, and persisting in the environment up to several weeks after release. Nerve agents are more toxic than the other reported CW agents.

The first edition of this book, Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels, was published just prior to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, Reflecting a greater sense of urgency within the field of chemical defense since this event, research related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) continues to expand at a remarkable pace.5/5(2).

This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism.

Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people.

Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics.

The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to. Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used in conflicts, warfare and terrorism.

Mustard gas is a chemical warfare agent that is detrimental for the earth and has a significant toxic effect on microorganisms in the soil.

It also inhibits the enzymatic activity of the soil [ 65 ]. On the other hand, SM can remain in the battlefields (for example beside the moats in World War I) and can be found in the amount of 1–25 mg/m3 in 6–12 inch depth of the by:   Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, Third Edition covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used in conflicts, warfare and terrorism.

Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this essential reference offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors and.

Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear.

These compounds have been widely used as agricultural insecticides (Raushel, ) and the most toxic compounds have also been developed as chemical warfare agents (such as tabun, sarin, soman or.

Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are defined as “any toxic chemical or its precursor that can cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation or sensory irritation through its chemical action.” 1. Defense Against the Effects of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents.

Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Pages Language English Chapter 1 OVERVIEW: DEFENSE AGAINST THE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS Chapter 2 HISTORY OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE: AN AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE Chapter 3 Seller Rating: % positive.

Start studying Chemical Warfare Agents and Effects. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. -most toxic chemical warfare agents ~Rate of action is delayed ~May be in food/water ~deleriants, stimulants, depressants, psychedelics.

Health information for preparedness, response, recovery from chemical emergencies. Includes CBRNE/Hazmat guidelines and training for the main classes of chemical agents, for healthcare providers, emergency managers and the public health workforce. Compiled by Disaster Information Management Research Center, NLM, NIH.

Incapacitating agents (anticholinergic chemicals) and highly toxic (acute) anticholinesterase chemicals produce functional and structural effects on the nervous system which cause rapid or delayed effects on an individual's performance and behavior.

Today, chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may pose a greater hazard to civilians than soldiers. The threat of chemical warfare is hardly novel. Traditionally used by armies to break a stalemate against relatively defenseless targets (those lacking masks, antidotes, and easy mobility), today, chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may pose a greater hazard to civilians than soldiers.

Types of Chemical Agents The toxic component of a chemical weapon is called its ‘chemical agent’. Based on their mode of action (i.e. the route of penetration and their effect on the human body), chemical agents are commonly divided into sev-eral categories: choking, blister, blood, nerve and riot control Size: 2MB.

Types of Chemical Agents Chemical agents are, for the purpose of this report, chemicals posing exceptional lethality and danger to humans.2 Some chemical agents are toxic industrial chemicals used for commercial purposes, while others are chemicals developed predominantly as weapons.

A chemical substance, whether gaseous, liquid or solid, which might be employed because of their direct toxic effects on man, animals & plants Nerve Agents Potentially lethal chemical agent which interferes w/ the transmission of nerve impulses (VX, Sarin, Soman, Cylosarin).

More than 10 years of U.S. chemical warfare in Vietnam exposed an estimated to million Vietnamese people to Agent Orange. More than Author: Jason Von Meding. "Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents is a comprehensive and up-to-date monograph covering in nine sections virtually everything related to the topic, from "anthrax" to "VX." The editor did an excellent job of giving a homogenous "feel" to the contributions of more than authors with varying backgrounds and points of : NOOK Book (Ebook).

Unites world-leading experts to present cutting-edge, agent-specific information on chemical warfare agents and their adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment.

Covers all aspects of chemical warfare agent modes of action, detection, prevention, therapeutic treatment and countermeasures.

APPEARANCE: Clear, amber-colored, oily liquid.; DESCRIPTION: VX is one of the nerve agents, which are the most toxic of the known chemical warfare is tasteless and odorless.

Exposure to VX can cause death in minutes. As little as one drop of VX on the skin can be fatal.Suggested Citation:"Lethal Effects (LCt50)."National Research Council. Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare gton, DC: The National Academies Press.

doi: /Exposure. Blood agents work through inhalation or ingestion. As chemical weapons, blood agents are typically disseminated as aerosols and take effect through inhalation. Due to their volatility, they are more toxic in confined areas than in open areas.

Cyanide compounds occur in small amounts in the natural environment and in cigarette are also used in several industrial processes.